• AWS,  S3

    S3 Multipart Upload – 5 MB Part Size Limit

    It is a well known limitation that Amazon S3 multipart upload requires the part size to be between 5 MB and 5 GB with an exception that the last part can be less than 5 MB.

    Does it mean that you cannot upload a single small file (< 5 MB) to S3 using the multipart upload?

  • AWS,  Hive,  S3

    Hive Table for S3 Access Logs

    Although Amazon S3 can generate a lot of logs and it makes sense to have an ETL process to parse, combine and put the logs into Parquet or ORC format for better query performance, there is still an easy way to analyze logs using a Hive table created just on top of the raw S3 log directory.

  • AWS,  I/O,  S3

    S3 Multipart Upload – S3 Access Log Messages

    Most applications writing data into S3 use the S3 multipart upload API to upload data in parts. First, you initiate the load, then upload parts and finally complete the multipart upload.

    Let’s see how this operation is reflected in the S3 access log. My application uploaded the file data.gz into S3, and I can view it as follows:

  • Amazon,  AWS,  Hive,  I/O,  Parquet,  S3,  Spark

    Spark – Slow Load Into Partitioned Hive Table on S3 – Direct Writes, Output Committer Algorithms

    I have a Spark job that transforms incoming data from compressed text files into Parquet format and loads them into a daily partition of a Hive table. This is a typical job in a data lake, it is quite simple but in my case it was very slow.

    Initially it took about 4 hours to convert ~2,100 input .gz files (~1.9 TB of data) into Parquet, while the actual Spark job took just 38 minutes to run and the remaining time was spent on loading data into a Hive partition.

    Let’s see what is the reason of such behavior and how we can improve the performance.

  • Amazon,  AWS,  EMR,  Hive,  I/O,  S3

    S3 Writes When Inserting Data into a Hive Table in Amazon EMR

    Often in an ETL process we move data from one source into another, typically doing some filtering, transformations and aggregations. Let’s consider which write operations are performed in S3.

    Just to focus on S3 writes I am going to use a very simple SQL INSERT statement just moving data from one table into another without any transformations as follows:

    INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE events PARTITION (event_dt = '2018-12-02', event_hour = '00')
    SELECT
      record_id,
      event_timestamp,
      event_name,
      app_name,
      country,
      city,
      payload
    FROM events_raw;
    
  • Amazon,  AWS,  I/O,  Monitoring,  S3,  Storage

    S3 Monitoring #4 – Read Operations and Tables

    Knowing how Hive table storage is organized can help us extract some additional information for S3 read operations for each table.

    In most cases (and you can easily adapt this for your specific table storage pattern), tables are stored in a S3 bucket under the following key structure:

    s3://<bucket_name>/hive/<database_name>/<table_name>/<partition1>/<partition2>/...
    

    For example, hourly data for orders table can be stored as follows:

    s3://cloudsqale/hive/sales.db/orders/created_dt=2018-10-18/hour=00/
    
  • Amazon,  AWS,  I/O,  Monitoring,  S3,  Storage

    S3 Monitoring Step #3 – Read Operations and File Types

    After you get the summary information for S3 read operations (see Step #2), it makes sense to look at file types. Analyzing the object keys you can easily summarize information about compressed files such as .gz files.

    Later I will use the Hive metadata information to define whether files named like 00000_0 are uncompressed text or ORC files.

    select type, count(*) keys, count(distinct key) dist_keys, 
      sum(bytes_sent)/sum(total_time_ms/1000)/(1024*1024) rate_mb_sec, 
      sum(total_time_ms/1000) time_spent,
      sum(bytes_sent)/(cast(1024 as bigint)*1024*1024*1024) terabytes_read
    from (
    select 
      key,
      case 
        when key like '%.gz' then 'Compressed .gz'
        else 'Other'
      end type,
      bytes_sent,
      total_time_ms
    from s3_access_logs 
    where event_dt ='{$EVENT_DT}' and operation='REST.GET.OBJECT') t
    group by type;
    

    Here is my sample output:

    type keys dist_keys rate_mb_sec time_spent terabytes_read
    Compressed .gz 21,535,003 7,411,981 3.8 504,318,631 1,812.8
    Other 6,345,354 647,040 18.5 1,465,848 25.9

    File Types and Object Size Bins

    Now let’s see the distribution of file types for each size bin:

    select type, size_type, count(*) keys, count(distinct key) dist_keys, 
      sum(bytes_sent)/sum(total_time_ms/1000)/(1024*1024) rate_mb_sec, 
      sum(bytes_sent)/(cast(1024 as bigint)*1024*1024*1024) terabytes_read
    from (
    select 
      key,
      case 
        when key like '%.gz' then 'Compressed .gz'
        else 'Other'
      end type,
      case 
        when total_size <= 1024*1024 then '<= 1 MB'
        when total_size <= 30*1024*1024 then '<= 30 MB'
        when total_size <= 100*1024*1024 then '<= 100 MB'
        else '> 100 MB'
      end size_type,
      bytes_sent,
      total_time_ms
    from s3_access_logs 
    where event_dt ='{$EVENT_DT}' and operation='REST.GET.OBJECT') t
    group by type, size_type;
    

    Sample output:

    type size_type keys dist_keys rate_mb_sec terabytes_read
    Compressed .gz <= 1 MB 7,759,230 3,579,785 5.2 2.4
    Compressed .gz <= 30 MB 6,927,405 2,456,010 4.6 47.3
    Compressed .gz <= 100 MB 1,136,926 436,463 3.7 71.1
    Compressed .gz > 100 MB 5,711,442 939,723 3.7 1,691.9
    Other <= 1 MB 2,535,108 496,286 3.2 0.2
    Other <= 30 MB 1,152,742 90,472 22.7 1.7
    Other <= 100 MB 150,521 7,119 14.7 1.0
    Other > 100 MB 2,506,983 53,191 19.4 23.0

    See also, S3 Monitoring Step #2 – Read Operations.